Notice to the People: A moment of Convergence

Reproduced from the AQ Transmissions, November 3rd, 2017

Notice to the People: A Moment of Convergence

My friend,

I reach out to you today because at some point along the journey our paths crossed and you spoke a word that resonated with my soul. Know that we are living in a unique time. I feel that you can handle what I am about to say. I know that you will deal with this knowledge responsibly. We must watch over our community members but do not just take what I am about to say for face value. Do you own research. Come to your own conclusions. After the research, if we still have the same view, excellent. If we do not then that is even better for lively debate.

We are at a moment. Moments like this are rare in the hands of time. If there is still any sleep in your eyes wipe it away; we must look forward with a gaze that is not disturbed. Look and see what is not playing out on the mainstream media for the mass psyche.

Yesterday I received word that there would be a military drill on November 4th, 2017. MARS (military auxiliary radio system) will be simulating a large scale coronal mass ejection. For those who are unaware, a coronal mass ejection is when the sun sends forth high energy ions (plasmas) into the interplanetary space. These have occurred in our past and there is a least one very well documented case, called the Carrington Flare of 1859, where charged particles from the sun hit the Earth. The event was beautiful in terms of the red, green, and blue auroras that could be seen but it was devastating to the infant communication network of the time. According to owncation.com, “telegraph wires burst into flames…, telegraph machines scorched paper printouts and stunned operators with electric shocks.” Even when unplugged the machines still ran for hours and for days there were electromagnetic storms.”[1] What makes mankind and us Earth Humans particularly susceptible to these events over the past many decades is that the sun has undergone great changes. An Asian physicist by the name of Alexey M. Dmitriev observed that the sun is now transmitting high energy plasma to the Earth more frequently and at a higher intensity.[2] What occurred in 1859 will occur again and will be more severe so the U.S. Military does preparation drills with the National Association for Amateur Radio (ARRL). During these drills stations cooperate to varying degrees with what is called a “really bad day scenario”.[3]  In the simulation “all forms of traditional communication, including landline telephones, cellphones, satellite, and Internet connectivity” will be impacted according to Army MARS programs Manager Paul English.[4]

I hope by now you are asking yourself – why is this significant? November 4th, tomorrow, Saturday November 4th , is also the day of the collective Antifa protest around multiple cities within the united American States. Hundreds, thousands, if not millions will be coming together to protest the rise of fascism within the U.S.[5] Because of the nature of this protest is it impossible to get accurate numbers on how many citizens will participate. What is significant is that all over the country a people with many ideas are going to move for many causes and it will all fall under the umbrella of stopping anti-fascism.

How many of the citizens of the U.S. and the people of America do you think are aware of this “simulated day” where all traditional forms of communication are down? How do you think people who believe that Saturday is day zero of a civil war[6],[7],[8] will react when they are no longer able to engage social media, to have access to their phones, or any or their points of connectivity, suddenly, while they are protesting?

My friend we need to recognize the moment we are in. Even a simulation can spark fear and chaos in the minds of the unsuspecting. We must be ready mentally for the possibly of greater events occurring than what we have been led to believe. Seeing into the future is something that we all have the ability to do. Research helps us determine which of many probable futures we will actually live in.

Imagine for a moment that not all of the protesters are on the same page of what fascism looks like in this country. I want you to imagine that some people desire to pursue different methods of dealing with the fascist elements than just putting on a demonstration for the oligarchs. So some groups will use this day not to protest but rather to instigate whatever they define as the change that needs to be made. Who are these groups is anyone’s guess but their existence is very real. They will be operating during this day that communications networks will have a “’communications interoperability’ training exercise November 4-6….simulating a ’very bad day.’”[9] Was this done on purpose? Chaos is the friend of a revolutionary and it is doubtful that the convergence of the Antifa protests and the MARS communications training exercise with ARRL were scheduled for the same day.

From a tactical military stand point, we must assume that anyone who is combative with the U.S. would also be aware of the convergence of the two activities and, as aware living beings who are voices of reason within our communities, we must also be prepared for their own very real attack to increase the chaos of the day. The U.S comprises the corporate government the runs this land. How many military groups want the U.S. to cease its despotic operations around the world? How many countries and peoples cry out for freedom from the tranny of the U.S Federal Reserve Notes? How much tension exists in the world today that is directly linked to U.S Fascist activities? Does it make you feel as if a release must be near? Would any of those military groups, countries or people plan openly or in secret about the way to instigate change? Is there any way that their plans could be helped along by a grid outage?

For the citizen, for the American, with their boots on the ground, engaged in whatever they will be engaging in on Saturday, will there be any way to determine if outages are simulated or real?

Questions to keep in mind today and every day moving forward.

My friend, I write you because we need to be aware of the moment we are walking into. Many realities can come forth on Saturday, Nov. 4th and it is imperative that in our mind we are prepared for both the benign and the severe.

There are events that are beyond the control of even the controllers. Know and recognize that the Earth game is much more intricate and complicated than any one human could truly comprehend. One day a coronal mass ejection event will occur. Like the mathematical reality of the existence of the Neo, the sun will eventually send out charged plasma into this solar system with the force of 20 million nuclear bombs.[10] So at the very least, join the MARS operator Saturday in simulating that reality. Your mind is a strong asset and if you are prepare mentally for that day. When it actually occurs, whether that be 9 years in the future or tomorrow, you are prepared. Go through the motions. Prepare with food as if the stores were going to shut down for a few days. Speak to those in your inner circle and come up with plans for multiple scenarios. Acquire candles and radios. Seek out water and make sure to have cash on hand. Or not….

Scientists from Asia have this to say about the coronal mass ejection, “From PlanetoPhysical State of the Earth and Life” by Alexey M. Dimitriev:

1.3 The Appearance of New States and Activity Regimes of the Sun.

As far as the stellarphysical state of the Sun is concerned, we must first note the fact that significant modifications have occurred in the existing behavioral model of the central object of our solar system. This conclusion comes from observations and reportings of unusual forms, energetic powers, and activities in the Sun’s functions [20,21], as well as modifications in it’s basic fundamental properties [28]. Since the end of the Maunder minimum, a progressive growth of the Sun’s general activity has been observed. This growth first revealed itself most definitely in the 22nd cycle; which posed a real problem for heliophysicists who were attempting to revise their main explanatory scenarios:

1.3.1 Concerning the velocity of reaching super-flash maximums.

1.3.2 Concerning the emissive power of separate flashes.

1.3.3 Concerning the energy of solar cosmic rays, etc.

…. The 23rd cycle was initiated by a short series of sunspots in August 1995 [32], which allows us to predict the solar activity maximum in 1999. What is also remarkable, is that a series of class C flares has already happened in July 1996 . The specificity and energy of this cycle was discussed at the end of the 1980’s. [23]. The increased frequency of X-Ray flux flares which occurred in the very beginning of this cycle provided evidence of the large-scale events to come; especially in relation to an increase in the frequency of super-flashes. The situation has become extremely serious due to the growth in the transmitting qualities of the interplanetary environment [2 3, 24] and the growth of Jupiter’s systems heliospheric function; with Jupiter having the possibility of being shrouded by a plasmosphere extending over Io’s orbit [13].[11]

….As a whole, all of the reporting and observation facilities give evidence to a growth in the velocity, quality, quantity, and energetic power of our Solar System’s Heliospheric processes.

….It is quite natural for the whole biota of the Earth to be subjected to these changing conditions of the electromagnetic field, and to the significant deep alterations of Earth’s climatic machinery. These fundamental processes of change create a demand within all of Earth’s life organisms for new forms of adaptation. The natural development of these new forms may lead to a total global revision of the range of species, and life, on Earth . New deeper qualities of life itself may come forth, bringing the new physical state of the Earth to an equilibrium with the new organismic possibilities of development, reproduction, and perfection. In this sense it is evident that we are faced with a problem of the adaptation of humanity to this new state of the Earth; new conditions on Earth whose biospheric qualities are varying, and non-uniformly distributed. Therefore the current period of transformation is transient, and the transition of life’s representatives to the future may take place only after a deep evaluation of what it will take to comply with these new Earthly biospheric conditions. Each living representative on Earth will be getting a thorough “examination,” or “quality control inspection,” to determine it’s ability to comply with these new conditions. These evolutionary challenges always require effort, or endurance, be it individual organisms, species, or communities. Therefore, it is not only the climate that is becoming new, but we as [mankind and] human beings are experiencing a global change in the vital processes of living organisms, or life itself; which is yet another link in the total process. We cannot treat such things separately, or individually.

I do not bring this information to you as a leader. I am merely a messenger for the divine feminine, which is an aspect of us all.  Regardless of your religious or spiritual leanings we are one. May these timely words imprint on your heart and mind. Maintain a decentralized hiearchy and communication network. Spread the word and change the world.  Peace.

AQ

~~~Update 11/4/2017 1:49am ~~~

Just a few days ago on October 18, 2017, there were two strong coronal mass ejections from the sun. Now they were on the far side of the sun. The solar system is a big place and ejections on one side would take some time before the physical effects are distributed throughout the system. What happens during the next one when the Earth is directly in the path of the sun spot? Destruction is a possibility but evolution is a continual reality.

[13]Powerful Double Solar Eruption (CME) – Electric Comet C2017/K2 Prediction – Earth Facing This Week

And sciencereport has this to say about a solar flare event the occurred in September of 2017:

“The sun has just erupted in an absolutely massive solar flare, so big that it knocked out radio comms here on Earth….

….Actually, it spat out two X-class flares, on the morning of 6 September EDT. These are the biggest class of solar flare there is, and the largest explosions in our solar system, with loops of plasma tens of times the size of the Earth….

….Solar flare activity has interesting effects on Earth. This one knocked out high-frequency radio, according to the NOAA, and degraded low-frequency navigation.”

Not to worry those September flares were small ones – maybe 7 Earths by Earths.[14]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DmT3pFg8sFg

5:46am: Im still unsure of why this might be the case but according to Dr. Arthur T. Bradley a coronal mass ejection wont actually fry small devices. A nuclear EMP will. Good to know that we won’t be going to the stone age is the sun shoots of plasma with the force of 20 million nuclear bombs!’

Blue Nyle Bey

References:

[1] https://owlcation.com/stem/massive-solar-flare-1859

[2] http://www.tmgnow.com/repository/global/planetophysical.html

[3] http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread1189301/pg1

[4] http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2017-10-26/dod-plans-solar-storm-based-national-blackout-drill-during-antifa-protests-november

[5] https://refusefascism.org/2017/08/06/this-nightmare-must-end-the-trumppence-regime-must-go/

[6] https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/nov/01/far-right-conspiracy-theory-us-civil-war. If you go to the antifa website it is clear that this idea that nothing will be happening on Nov. 4th is a complete lie

[7] https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2017/11/01/the-antifa-apocalypse-is-coming-this-weekend-if-you-believe-the-hype/?utm_term=.decf40cbe2bf

[8] http://www.politicalresearch.org/2017/10/31/rumors-of-civil-war-how-anti-communist-conspiracies-imagine-an-antifa-civil-war-on-november-4/#sthash.LfvJxlEK.dpbs

[9] https://www.infowars.com/breaking-dod-exercise-to-simulate-national-power-grid-collapse-on-antifa-day-of-rage/

[10] http://www.businessinsider.com/solar-storm-effects-electronics-energy-grid-2016-3

 

[11] http://www.tmgnow.com/repository/global/planetophysical.html

[12] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SIHLh6RWucM&t=1385s

[13] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GmSdfSpxH6w

[14] http://www.sciencealert.com/the-sun-just-spat-out-the-most-enormous-flare-in-12-years?utm_source=ScienceAlert+-+Daily+Email+Updates&utm_campaign=1fc5029541-MAILCHIMP_EMAIL_CAMPAIGN&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_fe5632fb09-1fc5029541-365629245

How the Seahorse Battled Depression

So as I finish up writing this post I realize that it is much longer than I intended…but preserve through it! I do not really want to shorten it much more than I have because then the story is not complete and the science is not built on a firm foundation. When you make it to the end you are going to be well on the path to knowing what a neuroscientist knows about CBD and depression :).

As we move deeper into the twenty-first century, depression is becoming a greater concern for health care providers worldwide. It is the fourth highest contributor to the global disease burden and the leading cause of disability [1]. How do we combat such an epidemic? For years treatment regimens have consisted of the prescription of anti-depressants. Perhaps you are familiar with friends, family, and other loved ones who have sought to alleviate their symptoms through the action of this class of drugs. Many different types of chemical agents with vastly different methods of action in body circuits are commonly used. To me and many other neuroscientists this suggests an interesting reality about these drugs. It would seem that the “specific interaction of the drug with its target is not responsible for its therapeutic effects; instead there is likely a secondary effect that is important [2].”

In neuroscience we are not really allowed to say that something definitely works. We work with systems that are way too completed for most to even dare uttering such a statement. We instead attempt to build up theories that are supported by data that builds a pretty compelling case for any hypothesis, or educated guess that we have made.

Part one of my hypothesis is that cannabinoids are really important in the brain. Part two is that anti-depressants tend to work well because they are using this system. Let’s see what the hard data has to say.

When you break a bone your body heals itself. Under that cast millions of cells are growing, dividing and reproducing themselves. And just like that you can walk again without the cast. Your brain can do this too albeit only in certain small zones. The hippocampus is one these zones where neurogenesis (def; birth of neurons) takes place. Weirdly enough this structure looks like a seahorse and its function will amaze you.

hippocampus[3]

Experiments have shown the storage of distant memories is one of the purposes of the hippocampus. So its pretty important for learning how to do something. Another big function is that it helps you to navigate in space. Makes sense right? You need a mental map in order to move around to places when you are not looking right at them.  Why is this important in depression?

Lets break this down. Event A occurs and there are all these things that you could focus your attention on. Your subconscious mind “sees” 1 million things. Your conscious mind “sees” 10 things. Those 10 things form a negative memory that burdens you, like emotional baggage. Maybe if you shifted your conscious focus to 20 things. You would have a whole different experience of that specific moment. And of course chronic depression happens, in major part, because a bunch of these micro experiences add up and create a lot of emotional tension. It seems to me that what might need to happen – and perhaps one of the better ways to battle depression – is to in each moment form more memories of things that we can interpret as positive and not as negative.

Now check this out. All throughout the brain is the cannabinoid system. Endogenously (def; produced from inside the body) produced endocannabinoids (def; cannabinoids that are produced inside of the body) act on receptors that are less active when animals are depressed [4]. Interestingly enough this system is heavily involved in the production of new neurons within the brain! These are receptors (if you need a refresher on these neuroscience terms read my previous post  Demystifying Neuroscience) called CB1 receptors that, when activated by specific chemicals produced in your body, cause a certain type of stem cell to activate and produce more neurons [5].

Has anyone heard of corticosteroids? For those who have never heard of them, corticosteroids are hormones that mammals and other vertebrates produce in a place called the adrenal cortex. As you can see from the picture these organs chill right next to the kidneys.

adrenal cortex[6]

When you get stressed out, due to a cut, inflammation, chronic pain or emotional pain this hormone is produced. Animals, being just like humans, also produce this hormone naturally. If you give an animal, say a mouse, an injection of this hormone it stresses them out[7]. If a researcher were to do this long enough the mouse would feel chronically stress AND the number of hippocampus CB1 receptors (remember they are important in memories) and endocannabinoids decrease[7].

Here’s some more data coming at ya. Some of the most common antidepressants prescribed are imipramine(Tofranil), escitalopram(Lexapro), and tianeptine (coaxil). Chronic administration of these drugs to rats causes the number of CB1 receptors to increase [2]. This is the exact opposite of what happens with the stressed out mice!

In that last study anti-depressants were administered and the amount of cannabinoids within an animal’s brain were measured. In another study by El Alfy et al 2010, many compounds within the cannabis plant including, Δ9-THC, Δ8THC, and cannabidiol (CBD) were given to mice.  Δ9-THC is widely regarded as the compound within cannabis indica that causes an individual to feel ‘high’. CBD is a cannabinoid with medicinal benefits that many researchers have dedicated a great deal of time and energy to educating the population about. When El Alfy and the team of researchers in this paper administered CBD and Δ9-THC it was shown on a depression measurement test for mice, called the tail suspension test, that both compounds were effective at increasing a behavioral response from the mice that international researchers have agreed is an indication of decreasing depression[8]. Δ8THC is a close cousin of Δ9-THC that was shown by these researchers not to have the same anti-depressant effects[8].

Kinda cool right. So to summarize basically there are these locks in a region of the brain that is known to be really important in memory, learning and spatial navigation. The keys to these locks are called endocannabinoids and are literally in the same family of chemicals that you find in naturally grown cannabis sativa.When you are stressed, this system, within the hippocampus, is less active, and when you are no longer depressed, this system is more active in the hippocampus. When the derivatives of the oil is given to animals it causes them to behave significantly different on metrics that are used to measure their equivalent of depression. So as a result of taking oil that contains these compounds from the cannabis sativa plant you would expect to see more neurons form in your brain and less depression!

Now the disclaimers…. 1) humans aren’t mice. So it is possible that everything that was just presented could be horribly wrong for humans. However human and mice brains and brain circuits are more similar than most people know. A fairly strong case was presented for animal models. In order to be respectful of the reader’s time we will go into the human studies in subsequent posts. Here is one that I came across as I was wrapping up this post. 2) Based on the analysis here taking CBD oil will help you form more neurons and potentially more memories of a bunch of moments. Not all memories are good memories. So if you are on autopilot you might form more of the negative memories that made you feel depressed in the first place. A great way you combat the autopilot tendency is to reflect after the event. Count to 10 and then write down what you liked about what happened and what you would do differently. This way you are training your mind to go to the positives of the situation and thus allowing yourself to form more positive memories.

In this post I limited myself to talking about the articles that I found in the last 72hours. There are over 23,000 published studies on the benefits of CBD oil on a wide range of dis-eases. Subscribe and follow this blog and the FB group Blue Nyle Nutrition to get the full breakdown.

[1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3137804/

[2] Smaga et al. Antidepressants and Changes in Concentration of Endocannabinoids and N-Acylethanolamines in Rate Brain Structures. Neurotox Res. 2014; 26(2): 190-206. doi: 10.1007/s12640-014-9465-0

[3] https://camphippo.wordpress.com/2013/07/14/what-is-the-hippocampus-part-i-episodic-memory-and-index-theory/

[4] Hill MN et al. Downregulation of endocannabinoid signaling in the hippocampus  following chronic unpredictable stress. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005; 30:508-515. doi: 10.1038/sj.npp.1300601

[5] Galve-Roperh I, Rueda D, Gomez del Pulgar T, Velasco G, Guzman M. Mechanism of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation by the CB(1) cannabinoid receptor. Molecular Pharmacology. 2002; 62: 1285-1392. doi: 10.1124/mol.62.6.1385

[6] https://edc2.healthtap.com/ht-staging/user_answer/avatars/396700/large/open-uri20120909-25810-zmyu02.jpeg?1386597675

[7] Hill et al. Prolonged glucocorticoid treatment decreases cannabinoid CB1 receptor density in the hippocampus. Hippocampus. 2008;18:221-226.doi:10.1002/hipo.20386

[8] El-Alfy et al. Antidepressant-like effect of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis Sativa L. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 2010 Jun;95(4): 434-442. doi 10.1016/i.pbb.2010.03.004

Demystifying Neuroscience  

Recently scientists have increased their interests in some brain circuitry called the endocannabinoid system. We have lots of brain circuits and each one is comprised of mainly specialized neurons and glial cells. One circuit that many community members are familiar with, because of an increased awareness in mental health, is the serotonin system. Newer anti-depressants will often attempt to alter the amount of serotonin that your brain moves throughout itself and throughout the body. The dopamine-norepinephrine-adrenaline system is one that many athletes are familiar with. A change in the dopamine system might be simultaneous with a high pressure situation or a very rewarding win. Scientists know of the existence of another system, the endocannabinoid system – so the natural question is what is its function?

One of the coolest things and one of the most challenging things about neuroscience is the fact that the circuits ‘talk’ to each other. One circuit can effect changes in another circuit through neurotransmitters. So basically you have a lot of locks and each lock has only so many keys (neurotransmitters) that will fit well enough to open the door and allow the “communication” to take place. When you open one lock it can change the form of, the amount of and the activity of the other locks within related regions, including the blueprint for the locks – the DNA.

Let’s go over one more example. Have you ever heard of the immune system? When something foreign invades your body this system turns on to protect you. The front line defenders, T- lymphocytes (white blood cells), have a whole bunch of keys on their outer membrane (cell skin). Depending on the lock-key interaction the cell knows who it needs to tell the body’s army (T-cells, Killer T-cells, macrophages) to eliminate and who they are cool with. This all happens at blazing fast speeds, perhaps 100000x times a second!

At this point you are probably wondering what the main job of a neuroscientist is. Really we want to know what each circuit in the body is responsible for. We can do this in a couple of ways: 1) we can use electrical or chemical means to force isolated neurons to dump their neurotransmitters into the synapse – the space between neurons. We then measure the resulting electrical signals in a cell or a grouping cells to see how activated a region is. 2) After using electrical or chemical means to cause the neuron to dump its neurotransmitters we measure either i) the chemicals in the synapse ii) the activation of the receptors on the receiving neuron (the “locks” or receptors). 3) We compare the resultant chemical or electrical signals from different genetic lines of a species who either have lost function of a protein or have increased function of a protein. 4) We mark proteins of interests with other proteins that light up different colors. We then use high powered microscopes to track the presence of the color within those regions of interest. Of course there are other things we do but this is neuroscience in a nut shell. The hard part is memorizing all the specific electrical and chemical techniques, the different genetic models, and the competing theories for how all the data comes together to form a coherent whole. Just imagine 1000’s of different experiments each testing one part of a million piece master system and then trying to retroengineer how that system works. Yea crazy right….

So now that you have a bit of background we can drive into some great articles that show why CBD (cannabidiol) oil is something that should be on your radar. Over the next many weeks you will see compelling evidence that CBD oil can effectively treat, if not completely ameliorate the symptoms of many debilitating diseases.

Many of the articles that I will review come straight from the US national Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Health website pubmed.com. I do not ask that you trust me blindly and I encourage everyone to read for themselves the original sources but let’s be real, very few people will have the time or the knowledge base to wade through an article that was not written for the layperson. As I present information on medicines and medical techniques my goal is to educate and build up your base of knowledge. So if I cannot translate what was said into coherent everyday language then I have not done my job. DM if you have questions or comments on what has been written.

I did not include any references because this is pretty basic neuroscience. On the Blue Nyle Nutrition Fackbook page will be pictures from a power point from a teaching assistant I once had that will clarify some of the concepts discussed.

Further reading for terminology used:

https://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/gloss.html

http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/immune-disorders/biology-of-the-immune-system/overview-of-the-immune-system

 

 

 

 

 

Cosmology’s Standard Model Part 1

I am an I am. My self-awareness allows me to contemplate the fact that this pen I am holding (all of my digital blogs start out on a sheet of paper) occupies some amount of space and time. But why does this pen have mass? Maybe a better question would be: how are the constituents of atoms interacting to give me the impression that this pen has mass. Is space-time truly the fabric of not only our physical universe but all of reality? Let’s delve deep.

A strange and curious thing happened in the century immediately preceding our own – matter became wavy. Whereas the Greeks were trained to see the cosmos as a billiard ball game of atomos once Democritus arrived on the scene, the New Scientists of the 20th century like Erwin Schrodinger, Werner Heisenberg and Richard Feymann, saw a duality to nature that had until then been obscured by Newtonian physics. Their conclusion: it would seem that our physical solidity is a partial illusion.

Erwin_Schrodinger2

[1] Erwin Schrodinger

234px-Standard_Model_Feynman_Diagram_Vertices

[2] Feymann diagrams depicting quantum particle/particle interactions.

In order to explain this assertion let’s walk through an experimental series that many neuroscience and physics undergraduates are quite familiar with. Imagine yourself as a pulse of light which was shot from a laser at one of two openings. There is a wall behind the slits that will be your resting place. When the wall is observed post-impact, it is discovered that not two impact bands exist but three! And one is darker than its siblings. What are we to make of this?  Consider the following: the movement of light can be measured at the photon level and when a particle passes through the slots, if an observer is aware of the slit, then three bands are not observed, but rather two. Therefore when an observer is unaware of the movement of the particle, it acts as a wave and creates what is known as an interference pattern (the light and dark strips). The traditional view is that the electron is like water and it passes through both slits are once, creating daughter waves that will either interact in a way to increases their amplitude or brings their amplitude to zero. Can we perhaps think about this result in a different way? Perhaps the wave can be understood as a series of probabilities: did the photon go through slit A, did the photon go through slit B, did the photon not go through slit A, did the photon not go through slit B. did the photon not go through either slit A or slit B? Why would it be that it is not until there is conscious awareness of the slit of passage that the probabilities collapse and the observer sees distinct bands of light that correspond to the physical slit locations? Truly fascinating….

Check out this video. The cartoon character Dr. Quantum offers an excellent supplementary explanation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DfPeprQ7oGc

Screenshot 2017-08-05 13.10.15.png

In the aftermath of what become known in college classrooms all over the country simply as the double slit experiment, quantum physicists began to theorize that the universe on the most minuet levels is itself probabilistic. Since the original simple light experiments by Thomas Young in 1801, it has been observed that even microclusters up to 810 atoms exhibit this duality [3]. Physicists who devote themselves to this branch of physics probe the energies of and behaviours of the smallest entities in existence. Quarks leptons, force carriers, nucleons and theoreticals – the quantum world is truly an odd zoological ecosystem and experiments at CERN ensure that the particle zoo catalogue is constantly being updated.

Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN) was founded in 1952 as Europe’s primer foundational physics research institution. Located on the Franco-Swiss border, this institution houses particle accelerators, detectors and other complex scientific equipment necessary to study the fundamental particles which are theorized to be the basic constituents of matter [4]. There are numerous examples in politics where European powers do not agree, however physics and the nature of reality is a strong uniting force among these states. CERN was one of Europe first joint ventures and now boasts a membership of 22 states [ibid].

[5] Inside the bowels of CERN. Notice the size of the particle tube relative to the entry and exit ports.

What are some of the newest, coolest data coming out of this institution? One thing that immediately caught my eye when snooping around for cutting edge experiments was the reality of antimatter. Nobel Lauderate Paul Dirac in 1928 predicted, through the combination of quantum theory and special relativity, that matter can exist in an inverted form [6]. By inverted I mean that electrons have a positive charge and protons a negative charge. What does antimatter tell us about the nature of reality? Writer Dan Brown seemed to think that antimatter was some pretty serious stuff. His book Angels vs. Demons opens with the death of a physicist from CERN and the thief of a vial of that precious cargo. Anyways, it is theorized that the big bang should have created equal amounts of both matter and anti-matter [ibid]. Strangely enough there is an extreme predominance of matter. A new Extra Low Energy Antiproton (ELENA) decelerating ring came on-line on Aug 2 and its capacity to decrease the momentum of anti-entities and to trap larger quantities of these anti-entities should assist physicists greatly in the exploration of this enigma of physicality [7].

Weirdly enough within that zoo exists a set of particles called virtual particles. Heisenberg is known for his uncertainty principle which states that knowledge of an elementary entity’s (I use entity here because this term lacks bias. Elementary particles is no longer a sufficient term given what we know of their wave nature) momentum precludes one from gaining an understanding of that object’s location and vise-versa. But he also discovered that the thermodynamic law about conservation of energy and motion can be violated on the quantum scale, with the caveat that this non-conservation doesn’t persist for too long [8] Be that as it may, electrons are constantly surrounded by those non-conservative spaces! [ibid.] For example, a photon being emitted by an electron is a virtual event [ibid]. But it does not stop there. Photons are massless energy packets but we are now not only positive that energy is constantly being created but also matter. According to Scientific American,”[q]uatum mechanics allows, and indeed required, temporary violations of conservation of energy, so one particle can become a pair of heavier particles…which rejoin into the original particle as if they had never been there.” [9] And here I thought that the law of conservation of energy and momentum was sacrosanct…, as fundamentally necessary to our understanding of this universe as gravity. What is going on?!

quantum foam

[10] Artists rendition of the quantum foam.

Ok, so I’m sure that I am uncertain about the existence of my pen. With all of these particles popping in and out of existence how is it that the pen manages to hold any semblance of integrity? Surely the answer lies with the attractive force of gravity. Natural force fields such as those associated with electricity, magnetism, and subatomic particles are the focus of quantum theory [11]. Quantum gravity represents the newest iteration of this theory. According to Quantum Bounce from the New Scientist Collection,” a successful theory of quantum gravity…would explain how gravity behaves over small distances, such as those in the centre of a black hole[ibid].”  Dark matter,  dark energy and black holes, what a vernacular Einstein’s equations have left us with. Far away from the brilliant brightness of the stars is mystery and intrigue that seems almost insurmountable. Einstein’s theories predict that the centre of a black hole is a singularity in which the laws of physics breakdown[12]. That conclusion is pretty disconcerting to modern physicists. Theories such as quantum gravity and its daughter theory loop quantum gravity are perhaps our best attempts of make sense of a head scratching paradox. M-theory, an 11-dimensional superstring theory, and the brane theory (our universe is a 4th dimensional brane in a sea of similar branes) are both examples of theories of quantum gravity [13].

Momentum and energy are at the heart of quantum mechanics. A mediation on the external world has lead may great natural philosophers and physical scientists to the conclusion that any satisfactory theory of physicality must include momentum, energy, matter, force, space, and time. (To be honest I don’t think most scientists push the envelope far enough. Any half-way decent theory of reality must, in my opinion, deal with the enigma of consciousness as well.) How can we make sense of the remaining concepts that construct our physicality? In the next post we’ll tackle the fascinating theories of Albert Einstein – a forgetful man who believed in a higher cosmic power and did not care if he wore the same clothes a few times in a row. His theories of special relativity and general relativity have inspired and assisted generations of scientists in understanding the relationships between gravity, matter/energy, space and time. Our understandings of the universe have evolved greatly since he walked among us which begs the question: is Einstein still relevant?

 

[1] https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/Erwin_Schrodinger2.jpg

[2] https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/75/Standard_Model_Feynman_Diagram_Vertices.png/234px-Standard_Model_Feynman_Diagram_Vertices.png

[3] https://medium.com/the-physics-arxiv-blog/physicists-smash-record-for-wave-particle-duality-462c39db8e7b

[4] https://home.cern/about

[5] https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/24/CMS%40CERN.jpg/1024px-CMS%40CERN.jpg

[6] https://home.cern/topics/antimatter

[7] https://home.cern/about/updates/2017/08/first-antiprotons-elena

[8] www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/blogs/physics/2012/10/quantum-foam-virtual-particles-and-other-curiosities.

[9] www.scientificamerican.com/are-virtual-particles-real

[10] https://cosmicbluenile.files.wordpress.com/2017/08/8b04f-quantumfoam.jpeg

[11] Clark, Stuart. Quantum Bounce. New Scientist: The collection. Vol 4. Iss 1. London.

[12] Ananthaswamy, Anil. Entangled Universe. New Scientist: The collection. Vol 4. Iss 1. London.

[13] Stuart, Colin. When Worlds Collide. New Scientist: The collection. Vol 4. Iss 1. London.

An Ecosystem of Magnetized Plasmas

Have you ever considered the fact that the Sun and the Earth are in direct communication? I mean yea it is obvious that the  ‘heat’ of the Sun effects life processes on this planetary sphere but what is that nebulous term ‘heat’ really when understood on the cosmic scale?

A plasma physicist from the University of Iowa, Jack Scudder, using observations from NASA’s THEMIS spacecraft and Europe’s Cluster Probing, has been researching a phenomenon which has many different names: x-points, electron diffusion regions or, and this is my personal favorite, magnetic portals [1]. A NASA article from July 2, 2012 stated that these portals are places where the magnetic field of Earth joins with the magnetic field of the Sun, creating an uninterrupted path leading from our planet to the Sun’s atmosphere 93 million miles away [ibid]. NASA has taken a serious interest in this body of knowledge and this researcher’s work. As of the data of that article NASA researchers were planning a mission called Magnetospheric –Multiscale Mission[2]. The focus of the mission will be to surround the portals with energetic particle detectors and magnetic sensors to observe how they work. Data is already available which demonstrates that these portals, which can be small and short lived to gigantic and sustained, open dozens of times a day[1]. When opened they allow a great deal of energetic exchange between the Sun and the Earth[2].

On planet Earth are an inconceivable number of lifeforms. Most are quite  far from the self-aware consciousness of homo-sapien, but I strongly believe that each is unique and conscious in its own way. Life on this scale would not be possible if it were not for one crucial factor – the magnetic field of the Earth. Without it creating layer upon layer of magnetized plasmas the solar wind would have long ago stripped away our atmosphere, including the oxygen so necessary for complex organisms[3]. What is the solar wind? How is the Earth’s magnetic field put together? And how do these phenomena interact?

Before elaborating on these phenomena I would like to take some time to focus on some interesting celestial mechanics that will affect the operation of this Sun-Earth system.

In the Northern Latitudes, starting in later March, a special point is reached called the vernal equinox. At this time the Sun is exactly perpendicular to the equator of Earth and as a result 12 hours of day and 12 hours of night occur as the Earth revolves around this location. Three months later the angle which the Sun’s rays hit the Northern Latitudes is at its maximum, which is termed the summer solstice. Later on there is an autumnal equinox and a winter solstice. When the winter solstice is reached the angle of declination of the sun is the same amplitude but it is now maximized in the opposite direction relative to the summer solstice.

apparent path of sun around earth

[4] Apparent path of the Sun from the Earth reference frame

The net effect of all these angles is that a magnetic field of similar strength (intensity) and direction will have very different effects on the planet at varying time periods during the year. Another way to visualize what I just said is the following: imagine you are holding two bar magnets.

MagneticMap_bar magnets[5] Bar magnet. Iron filing help illustrate the magnetic field lines. 

Both magnets will have a north and south pole or positive and negative ends. If you hold one steady and revolve another along a 30 degree angle you’ll notice that there are four significant points. Two points are when the center of the magnets are in the same horizontal plane and the other two will be when the magnets centers are maximally displaced from each other vertically. At these two points one of two things will occur: 1) the south pole of the stationary magnet is closer to the north pole of the revolving magnet or 2) the north pole of the stationary magnet is closer to the south pole of the revolving magnet. In a nutshell that is the Earth-Sun system and will explain a lot of the seasonal phenomena that we Earth Humans experience. But you did not come to this blog to get the super simple so let dive a bit deeper into this system.

Any investigation of the solar wind must first begin with the Corona (Spanish to English translation = crown) of the Sun. In much the same way that the Earth is layered from the lithosphere to the ionosphere to the magnetosphere, the Sun is also a layered construct. The corona is thousands of times higher, approximately 10 million times less dense than the surface of sol and contains extremely energetic particles [6]. Most astrophysicists are baffled by the energy gradient from the Sun’s surface to the corona [ibid]. Through the NASA mission IRIS comes one possible explanation. It was observed that “heat bombs” or in other words, spherical packets of high energy plasma, travel from the sun’s interior to the corona; when the conditions are right the packets explode, releasing heat in the process [7]. This newly introduced energy will accelerate the particles of the coronal layer to such speeds that the gravity of the Sun is no longer adequate to keep them bound to the sphere. This exodus of particles, whose mission it will be to traverse the solar system, are what astrophysicists have termed the solar wind.

What is so incredibly fascinating about this solar wind is that it is a plasmatic imprint of the Sun’s magnetic field [8]. Eventually this field will come into contact with Earth’s field and, if at the contact point Earth’s field is the opposite orientation or significantly different, then the lines of Earth’s field will break and reconnect to the whatever is attractive. Here is an explanation from a NASA site on the Magnetosphere Multiscale Mission:

” Magnetic fields serve as a “connective tissue” that binds plasmas together into cohesive cells sharing the same magnetic field lines. When different parts of a magnetized plasma cell move relative to each other, the magnetic field within it fights back and energy is stored in the stretched and deformed magnetic field. This energy is released when the plasma cell is divided by reconnection of the magnetic fields, disconnecting the magnetic linkage between the two regions in relative motion, and creating two distinct cells that are no longer linked, allowing the relative motion to proceed.”

This process is termed magnetic reconnection and effectively the Sun is converting magnetic energy to kinetic energy! [8,9]

As the solar wind approaches the Earth it comes into contact with a multitude of different plasmas, which are collectively termed the magnetosphere[10]. Breaking the magnetosphere into its major constituent layers yields the following domains: 1) the magnetopause 2) the Van Allen radiation belts 3) the plasmasphere and 4) the ionosphere. Shaped by the Earth’s magnetic fields as well as the impact of the solar wind, one will find highly energetic plasma consisting of free protons and electrons as well as ions of heavier elements emitted from the Sun in these layers [ibid]. The outer edge of this oval is 28 x RE (Earth Radius) at some places and an astonishing 200 x RE in other locations. According to i-sis.org.uk the main function of the magnetosphere is to form an obstacle to the flow of the solar wind, oftentimes diverting it by approximately 11 RE.

Dipole_vs_Magnetosphere of Earth

[11] Earth’s magnetosphere: Interaction of Earth magnetic field with the solar wind. Visible are the outermost layers of the magentosphere. 

As we move from the interplanetary space towards the Earth’s core we next come across the magnetopause. This region exists at a distance of between 6 to 15 RE. Functionally, this layer acts as a sieve, allowing some particles carried by the solar wind to enter while rejecting others. One must recognize the dynamic nature of the outer magnetosphere and the magnetopause. While the magnetopause acts as a filter of solar-wind particles, it is very much affected by the composition and velocity of the solar wind.

In 1958 when the US satellite Explorer I was launched its first discovery was the Van Allen radiation belts. Originally two were discovered with a very pronounced null zone, which lacked electron presence. Since the 50’s it has been observed that the belts flux, merge and even separate into three bands. Between 600 and 9600 km above the Earth’s surface is the first belt and the second belt is bounded by the distance of 13500 to 58000 km (8.4 RE)[10]. The outer belt is quite the boundary. Unless there are strong winds or a coronal mass ejection of exceptional magnitude, even the fastest electrons cannot penetrate[ibid].

For the moment let’s proceed to the ionosphere and then we will return to a brief discussion of the plasmasphere. Many are in awe of the auroras produced within the high Northern Latitudes. What incredible sights these phenomena are! As I grow older I will travel extensively and to see these beauties with my own two eyes is something which I really desire. Norwegian plasma physicist and Nobel Laureate Hannes Alfvén proposed that Birkeland currents play a crucial role in “transmitting electromagnetic energy from the Sun to the Earth and in creating the auroras.” [ibid]. The theory goes that spiraling down electric field lines are 1-20 keV electrons and 200 keV ions which collide with particles in the ionosphere, exchanging energy in the process[ibid]. Those green emissions in the featured picture are oxygen excitations. Birkeland currents are theorized to be sheet-like. That being said, space and ground-based technology reveal a significantly more complex pattern of current flows in the ionosphere.

ionosphere currents

[ibid]. Currents projecting into and out of Earth’s ionosphere at the North magnetic pole connecting it to the plasmasphere and magnetospher

In 1963 both Grange and Carpenter using the Lunik Moon probes and propagating radio waves (Whistlers),respectively,  to identify a steep density gradient which corresponded to the outer plasmasphere [12]. The outer magnetosphere is hot, low-density plasma and the ionosphere is cool, high-density plasma[ibid]. The plasmasphere is located between these two regions. The temperature gradient is not continuous, as evidenced by the fact that the coldest plasma is in the plasmasphere according to NASA [13]. Torus-like in shape, the plasmasphere consists of closed, approximately dipolar electric field lines. This space can be dynamic and highly structured. [12]

When we think of the complexity of life we tend to anthropomorphize it. The development of a hominid brain from four nucleic acids that allows for interaction with the amorphous, cloud-like space of the internet or the Iphone is certainly astonishing. However I would argue that the development of relatively stable plasma differentials between fluxing magnetic and electrical fields which allows for timed physical cycles (i.e geomagnetic storms, climates, pole shifts) at regular intervals is pretty damn complex! In fact I would venture to say that the complexity of this cosmic ecosystem is many exponential factors removed from our own hominid complexity.

 

[1] www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sunearth/news/mag_portals.html ).

[2] http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2168938/NASA-discovers-portals-space-Earth-Sun-dont-book-ticket-just-yet.html

[3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth%27s_magnetic_field

[4] http://www.opencourse.info/astronomy/introduction/02.motion_stars_sun/

[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Magnet0873.png

[6] http://spaceplace.nasa.gov

[7] http://earthsky.org/space/mystery-of-corona-sun-upper-atmosphere-heating

[8] http://solar-center.stanford.edu/sun-on-earth/sun-earth.html

[9] https://mms.gsfc.nasa.gov/science.html

[10] http://www.i-sis.org.uk/Earths_Magnetized_Plasma_Shield.php

[11] https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dipole_vs_Magnetosphere.jpg

[12] http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/physics/ps-paper.html

[13] https://plasmasphere.nasa.gov/

Contemporary Attempts to Order the Celestial Sphere

Our cosmological models have been written and rewritten so many times, if another advanced species were observing us they would have to wonder if us Earth humans are ever going to get it right. First, the Earth was the center of the universe, and then it was one of the heavenly bodies that revolved around a pretty interesting but relatively stationary and lonely star within the great cosmos (which at that point was just the solar system). And then came along three celestial mechanics giants and our consciousness jumped exponentially with each one of their entrances to the conversation.

Henrietta Swan Leavitt attended the Society for the Collegiate Instruction of Women in Massachusetts, which would later be known as Radcliffe College. After her graduation she found a post at the Harvard College observatory under the direction of Charles Pickering. Over her career she discovered and made a thorough study of over 2000 stars, specifically a grouping of stars known as the Cepheid Variables[1].

Cepheids I and II trans background-402x308

[2] Using Cepheid variables to measure distance

Leavitt noticed that these stars contracted and expanded in a very predicable way and this rate was directly related to the maximal brightness of the star. By closely observing these stars she was able to deduce what is known as the Cepheid Variable Period Luminosity.  These data allowed researchers to begin to measure cosmic distance and was integral to the contribution made by the next gargantuan researcher.  In addition to these contributions Leavitt also developed a 17 scale measurement tool for star brightness through the usage of logarithmic equations and data from 299 stars and 13 telescopes[1].

Edwin Hubble, after which NASA’s Hubble telescope is named, studied physics at the University of Chicago and astronomy at Cambridge. Shortly after leaving Cambridge he received a post at the Mount Wilson Observatory in California, where he remained until his death in 1953. Using the newly constructed Hooker telescope he also made a study of the Cepheid variable stars[3].

Heic1323a_-1243686232 [4] RS Puppis – one of the brightest Cepheid Variables

His early research led him to conclude Andromeda was not merely a spiral of the milky way but a galaxy in its own right [3]. His further research allowed him to not only put to death the theory that our galaxy is the only one in the universe but he was able to correlate spectral data with distance. His theory, and what has been used in the astrophysics community since, is that red-shift in galaxy light emissions is related to distance between galaxies in a linear fashion [5]. This research lead Hubble to the conclusion that the cosmos is expanding. If most people had a hard time accepting that the universe was made up of an non-quantifiable number of other galaxies their minds had to have just blown-up when it was also demonstrated that the universe is expanding.

So 1 star became 10^11(100billion)  and that morphed into at least 10^23 [6]. Maybe our estimates are a bit off and its really 6.022 x 10^23 (gotta give my chemistry guys a shout out). So whats the next step? Each jump is so unimaginably large that it boggles the mind to think there could be more but….is there a chance that we will discover the universe is finite and just one of many within the multiverse? Does it ever end or do we just get to a point where we can perceive another boundary limit more distinctly? Utterly mind-bending…

The last of the gargantuan astronomers for today is the man who characterized the planet Uranus in this age, William Herschel (1783-1822), but that was far from his greatest contribution, in my opinion. I could imagine that astronomers of deep antiquity all the way up to the 18th century were convinced that our stars existed without partner. After all it is Newton’s theory of gravity that gives proof of the attraction of bodies at a distance. Without his theory, heavenly bodies were just pretty stationary objects. And then came Herschel. From his mind came the colossal works the “New General Catalog” and “Catalog on Double Stars”. It is this final work that has me truly fascinated. He discovered that certain stars existed quite close to each other and his observations led him to the conclusion that gravity exists outside of our solar system and that these stars were in fact gravitationally attracted to each other[7]. His was a strong career that lead to a personal cataloging of more than 2500 stars and 145 double (or binary) stars [8]. Some of these systems are incredible to say the least. According to the Binary Research Institute astronomers from the United Kingdom working on Hawaii with an Infrared telescope just recently  discovered four pairs of binary systems in which the stars orbit each other in under four hours [9]. Imagine the short distance that must exist between them…

So this all begs the question, does solar system sol have a binary companion around which it dances? In the Milky way approximately half of all stars are binary stars so the chances are quite high[10]! Surely William Herschel must have thought that the binaries were rarities but he couldn’t have been more wrong. Amazingly a physicist from Berkeley and a radio astronomer from Harvard are suggesting that all stars are formed in pairs [10]. Perhaps our sun did have a dancing partner but instead of a social companion it was a nemesis which had to be vanquished. So naturally us Earth humans living so long after the formation of the binary system would not have any knowledge of its existence. What a warrior sun we had! Well anyways our sun seems to be quite unique in the universe in that it has a planet that can support life. Did its former twin also have this ability? Perhaps more scans of the sky with the Hubble telescope will yield the answers to these late night metaphysical musings.

 

[1] http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/baleav.html

[2] https://lco.global/spacebook/cepheid-variable-stars-supernovae-and-distance-measurement/

[3] https://www.biography.com/people/edwin-hubble-9345936

[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cepheid_variable

[5] https://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/questions/redshift.html

[6] https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2016/hubble-reveals-observable-universe-contains-10-times-more-galaxies-than-previously-thought

[7]  https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/Education/FamousSolarPhysicists/william-herschel-1738-1822

[8] https://www.space.com/17432-william-herschel.html

[9] http://binaryresearchinstitute.com/bri/astronomers-discover-impossible-binary-systems/

[10] http://news.berkeley.edu/2017/06/13/new-evidence-that-all-stars-are-born-in-pairs/

 

A Budding Interest

A friend of mine recently starting working with the house committee on Science, Space and Technology. When she told me I immediately imagined a future where she would be a part of a cool secret think tank whose purpose it was to develop awesome new technologies that would assist humanity in our quest to understand the cosmos. In this made up reality I envisioned her leading groups of biologists and climatologists to the surface of Mars to see the state of our next door neighbor with observational and intuitive skills that are the hallmark of our species. I want to believe that what her team will discover will forever change how we Earth humans understand ourselves in this great cosmic game.

Truth be told I have no idea what the job entails. For all I know she could be working on something super mundane like categorizing galaxies based on their geometries or looking at  NASA photos for iron oxide composition. All the PhD’s out there know that data analysis can be one of the most mind-numbing tasks at times but hey every dream has got to start somewhere!

When I first heard her speak about the possibility of getting this super futuristic position I had this extreme urge to know more about the subjects that had recently made a bid for my friends future. So I began researching and compiling an understanding of the current states of our physics and astrophysics. We live in a weird-ass, beautiful cosmos and with this blog I intend to share with the readers my newfound interest in these bodies of knowledge ( and in the process consolidate my own understanding.) My interests are quite diverse! and every now and then I plan to write about advances and discoveries in many other other ares of natural philosophy besides physics and astrophysics. Let the journey begin